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Bristol Beaufighter FSX

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Qaphela, kuphela FSX-SP2 noma Ukusheshisa

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I Bristol Uhlobo 156 Beaufighter, ivamise ukubizwa ngokuthi kumane nje kuyindlela Beau, kwaba British yesikhathi eside fighter esindayo ukuguqulwa ngaphambili Beaufort torpedo Idelakufa design Bristol Aeroplane yeNkampani. Igama Beaufighter kuyinto portmanteau of "Beaufort" futhi "fighter".

Ngokungafani the Beaufort, lo Beaufighter wayesethubeni lokuthola umsebenzi eside futhi wakhonza cishe zonke yeshashalazi wempi seMpi yoMhlaba yesiBili, okokuqala njengoba fighter ebusuku, khona-ke njengoba webhomu fighter futhi ekugcineni esikhundleni Beaufort njengoba Idelakufa torpedo. A variant yakhiwa e-Australia nguMnyango Aircraft Production (Dap), futhi wayaziwa e-Australia njengoba DAP Beaufighter.

Design kanye nokuthuthukiswa

Umqondo ukuthuthukiswa fighter we Beaufort kwasikiselwa eMnyango Air by Bristol. I ukusikisela kwaqondana ukubambezeleka ukuthuthukiswa kanye ukukhiqizwa Westland Okusheshayo inganono-behlome twin-engine fighter. Kusukela "Beaufort Cannon Fighter" kwaba ukuguquka i design, ukuthuthukiswa ekhona futhi ukukhiqizwa kungalindeleka okungaphezulu ngokushesha kunokuhlala design fresh ngokuphelele. Ngakho, i-Ministry Air kukhiqizwa incazelo F.11 / 37 lebhaliwe bezungeza ukusikisela Bristol sokuba "wesikhashana" ndiza kusalindwe isingeniso efanele Okusheshayo. Bristol esaqala ukuwakha sibonelo ngokuthatha Beaufort ingxenye eyakhiwe aphume line production. Sibonelo wokuqala landizela on 17 July 1939, kancane izinyanga kweziyisishiyagalombili ngemva design awuthomileko, mhlawumbe ngenxa ukusetshenziswa ingxenye enkulu eziklanyiwe Beaufort kanye izingxenye. Ikontraga ukukhiqizwa emishini 300 base bamukelwe kakade ibekwe amasonto amabili ngaphambi sibonelo F.17 / 39 ngisho lalindiza ngawo.

Ngokuvamile, umehluko phakathi Beaufort and Beaufighter babeyizinkulungwane ezincane. Amaphiko, control evele, retractable kokwehla gear kanye nesigaba aft we fuselage ngamashumi nsé nalezo Beaufort, kuyilapho esigabeni iphiko isikhungo kwakufuze bahluke nokufakwa ezithile. The bay ibhomu yakhishwa, futhi ezine phambili-kokudubula 20 mm Hispano Mk III kwaqhuma base aboshelwe ephansi fuselage ndawo. Lezi kwaqale fed kusuka 60-round imigqomo, edinga opharetha radar ukushintsha imigqomo esingagunyaziwe nezinhlamvu ngesandla - umsebenzi olukhandlayo kanye nezinkolelo ezingathandwa, ikakhulukazi ebusuku ngesikhathi nokujaha Idelakufa. Ngenxa yalokho, ngokushesha base indawo uhlelo Bopha ibhande-feed. I kwaqhuma abangu kulekelelwa eziyisithupha .303 e (7.7 mm) Browning machineguns in amaphiko (ezine uhlangothi lomkhumbi lwesandla sokudla, port amabili). Izindawo ngoba umdubuli kambayimbayi ezingemuva futhi ibhomu-aimer kwasuswa, kusale kuphela umshayeli in a abanikeze asebenza nabo fighter-hlobo. Umqhubi Itilosi / radar wahlala ezingemuva ngaphansi Perspex bubble elincane lapho Beaufort sika amaphiko turret wayekade.

I Bristol Taurus izinjini we Beaufort kwakungewona esinamandla anele fighter kanye kwangena ezinamandla kakhudlwana eBristol Hercules. Amandla extra eyethulwa izinkinga nge vibration; ekuklanyweni lokugcina ababeya ogibele eside, struts nezimo, okuyinto wanamathela uvela phambi amaphiko. Lokhu kwenza maphakathi gravity (kwesondo) phambili, into embi i design izindiza. It washukunyiswa emuva kunciphisa ekhaleni, njengoba kwakudingeka kungekho isikhala sokuthi aimer ibhomu fighter. Lokhu iningi fuselage ngemuva iphiko, ahambise lezi kwesondo emuva lapho kufanele. With the cowlings injini ophephela manje okunye phambili ukwedlula ichopho ikhala, lo Beaufighter kwadingeka ukubukeka Izici omfushane.

Ukukhiqizwa kwe-Beaufort e-Australia, kanye nokusetshenziswa yimpumelelo kakhulu British-ezenziwe Beaufighters by the Royal Australian Air Force, kwaholela Beaufighters lakhiwa nguMnyango Australia Aircraft Production (Dap) kusuka 1944 phambili. variant I DAP kwakungu Idelakufa attack / torpedo eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Marku 21: izinguquko design kuhlanganisiwe Hercules VII noma XVIII izinjini kanye izinguquko ezincane in kwezikhali.

By the time emigqeni British ukukhiqizwa ivalwe September 1945, 5,564 Beaufighters elalakhiwe ngo eNgilandi, by Bristol futhi sihlonishwa nangabantu Fairey Aviation Company, (498) Ministry of Aircraft Production (3336) kanye Rootes (260).

Lapho ukukhiqizwa Australian bunqamuka ngo 1946, 365 Mk.21s elalakhiwe.

isevisi Operational

Bristol Beaufighter Mk 1 No 252 isigaba, North Africa

Ngezindinganiso empini, Beaufighter Mk.I kwakuminyene ayesinda futhi engakwazi ukushesha. It kwadingeka isisindo yonke-up of 16,000 lb (7,000 kg) kanye ngesivinini esiphezulu mph 335 kuphela (540 km / h) at 16,800 ft (5,000 m). Nokho konke lokhu kwakuphathelene elatholakala ngaleso sikhathi, njengoba ukukhiqizwa ngokwengeziwe ngenye omuhle Westland Okusheshayo yayikhululwe kumisiwe ngenxa yezinkinga ukukhiqizwa Rolls-Royce peregrine yayo izinjini.

I Beaufighter wazithola ozayo off the line production cishe ncamashi esifanayo njengoba kuqala British Airborne Intercept (AI) radar lishona. With the inganono ezine 20 mm aboshelwe fuselage ephansi, ikhala babekwazi ihlanganise antenna radar, futhi roominess jikelele we fuselage inikwe amandla imishini AI yenziwe kalula. Ngisho balayisha ukuze 20,000 lb (9,100 kg) endizeni kwaba fast ngokwanele ukubamba ekuhlaseleni German. Ngasekuqaleni kuka 1941, kwaba i counter ngempumelelo ukuze Luftwaffe ebusuku kuphangwa. The onobuhle zakuqala ezihlukahlukene we Beaufighter ngokushesha inkonzo kwezilwandle, lapho mazombezombe yayo futhi waba nokwethenjelwa ngokushesha wenza ndiza lidumile nabasebenza.

UMA ubheka isibhakabhaka ngobusuku-fighter Mk VIF sasithola squadrons ngo-March 1942, ifakwe AI Marku VIII radar. Njengoba ngokushesha de Havilland Mosquito yathatha izintambo ngo indima ebusuku fighter maphakathi no kuya ngasekupheleni kuka 1942, lo Beaufighters olunesisindo esikhudlwana lwaluba kwaba usizo kakhulu ekuhumusheni kwezinye izindawo ezifana anti-lokuthumela, emhlabathini attack futhi eside-range interdiction kuzo zonke yaseshashalazini enkulu imisebenzi.

In the Mediterranean, 414th le USAAF sika, 415th, 416th futhi 417th Night Fighter Squadrons wathola 100 Beaufighters ehlobo lika 1943, nokufeza ukunqoba kwakhe kokuqala July 1943. Through ehlobo squadrons olwenziwe kokubili sasemini hide hlenga kanye emhlabathini-attack imisebenzi, kodwa ngokuyinhloko landizela ukuzivikela ukucabhela ohambweni ebusuku. Nakuba Northrop P-61 Black Widow fighter zaqala ukutheleka ngo-December 1944, USAAF Beaufighters waqhubeka fly ukusebenza ebusuku e-Italy naseFrance ngasekupheleni kwempi.

Ekwindla ka-1943, the Mosquito lase litholakala izinombolo ngokwanele yini ukuthi ungene esikhundleni Beaufighter njengoba primary ebusuku fighter we RAF. Lwathi luphela kwempi abanye abashayeli bezindiza 70 ekhonza no-RAF amayunithi wayebe Aces ngenkathi ezindizayo Beaufighters.

I Beaufighter is ezisohlwini isithasiselo inoveli KG 200 ngokuthi zafinyelela by German imfihlo imisebenzi unit KG 200, okuyinto ihlolwe, ahlolwe futhi ngezinye izikhathi ngasese eziqhutshwa ethumba izindiza isitha phakathi neMpi Yezwe II. Coastal Command

1941 wabona intuthuko ye Beaufighter Mk.IC eside fighter esindayo. Lokhu variant entsha wangenela inkonzo ngo May 1941 nge ihlukane ukusuka eNo 252 isigaba nokuqhuba Malta. Indiza iye yaphumelela eMedithera kangaka ngokumelene lokuthumela, izindiza kanye emhlabathini okuhloswe ukuthi Coastal Umyalo waba umsebenzisi enkulu Beaufighter, esikhundleni Beaufort manje esiphelelwe kanye Blenheim.

Coastal Command waqala ukuthatha kwezidingo Mk.VIC up angcolile maphakathi nawo 1942. Lwathi luphela 1942 Mk VICs ababephathwa ifakwe gear torpedo-ethwele, okwabenza bakwazi ukufeza le British 18 in (457 mm) noma US 22.5 in (572 mm) torpedo ngaphandle. The yimpumelelo torpedo ukuhlaselwa kuqala ngokubakhonza Beaufighters bafika ngo-April 1943, ne No. 254 isigaba kucwila imikhumbi emibili yomthengisi off Norway.

I Hercules Mk XVII, asathuthuka 1,735 hp (1,294 kW) at 500 ft (150 m), wamiswa ku Mk VIC airframe ukukhipa TF Mk.X (torpedo Fighter), ngokuvamile eyaziwa ngokuthi i- "Torbeau." I Mk X yaba isikhungo esiyinhloko ukukhiqizwa uphawu Beaufighter. Okufana Isiteleka se-"Torbeau" kwaba waqoka Mk.XIC. Beaufighter TF XS ziyonenza ukuhlaselwa ngobuciko on lokuthumela at wave-top ukuphakama torpedoes noma "60lb" RP-3 namarokhethi. amamodeli okuqala Mk XS wathwala metric-nombono UMCULO (air-to-surface isitsha) radar nge "herringbone" izimpondo athwalwa ikhala elingaphandle amaphiko, kodwa lokhu eyabuyiselwa 1943 sekwephuzile by the centimetric AI Marku VIII radar lungaphansi a "imfimbolo-impumulo" radome, olwenza wonke-sezulu kanye nokuhlaselwa ebusuku.

The North Coates Strike Iphiko Coastal Command, elisebenzela RAF eNyakatho Coates phezu Lincolnshire ogwini, ithuthukiswe amaqhinga okuyinto kuhlangene zokwakheka enkulu Beaufighters usebenzisa inganono namarokhethi ukucindezela flak kuyilapho Torbeaus ehlaselwa ezingeni eliphansi nge torpedoes. Lezi amaqhinga bafakwa umkhuba maphakathi no 1943, kanti esikhathini ngenyanga 10-, 29,762 amathani (27,000 amathani) wemikhumbi abangu Umbe. Amaqhinga kwenziwa ingashintshwa uma lokuthumela yasuka port ebusuku. North Coates Strike Wing eziqhutshwa njengoba ngobukhulu anti-lokuthumela amandla Second iMpi Yezwe, futhi zaba iminyaka engaphezu 150,000 amathani (136,100 amathani) wemikhumbi nezitsha 117 for ukulahlekelwa 120 Beaufighters futhi 241 aircrew abulawe noma ulahlekile. Lokhu kwaba nengxenye the tonnage Imininingwane Umbe yibo bonke amaphiko isiteleka phakathi 1942-45. Pacific impi I Beaufighter bafika ngesikhathi squadrons e-Asia naseziqhingini zasePacific maphakathi no-1942. It Sekukaningi kusho - nakuba kwaba ekuqaleni ucezu RAF Whimsy ngokushesha wenyuselwa wentatheli British - ukuthi amasosha Japanese wabhekisela kule Beaufighter ngokuthi "sikhonona ukufa", okuthiwa ngoba abahlasela izindiza babevame lingezwakali (noma ukubonwa) kuze kakhulu sekwephuzile. Hercules izinjini I Beaufighter yasebenzisa emkhonweni valve okuyinto ayengenalo ezinomsindo valve gear ezivame ukushiwo abantu ngokuqondene poppet valve izinjini. Lokhu kwaba sobala kakhulu kwanciphisa nomsindo level at the front of the engine.

South East Asia

In the South-East Asian Theatre, i-Beaufighter Mk VIF eziqhutshwa India ngobusuku ohambweni ngokumelene imizila Japanese yokuxhumana Manje iBurma isibizwa Thailand. I ngesivinini, ukuhlaselwa eliphansi Zaziphumelela kakhulu, naphezu ngokuvamile elibi izimo zezulu, kanti ukukhanda esikhashana kanye nokugcinwa facilities.South empumalanga Asia

South west Pacific

Ngaphambi DAP Beaufighters bafike endaweni Royal Australian Air Force amayunithi yaseshashalazini South West Pacific, eBristol Beaufighter Mk IC kwasetshenziswa anti-lokuthumela izabelo.
Adume kakhulu zalezi kwaba Battle of the Sea esiseBismarck in which they wabambisana ne USAAF A-20 Bostons B-25 eMitchells. Cha 30 isigaba RAAF Beaufighters landizela e- insika ukuphakama ukunikeza esindayo suppressive ngomlilo amagagasi lokuhlasela ekuhlaseleni. The hide Japanese, ngaphansi babonakale sengathi ngaphansi torpedo kuhlaselwa, wenza ebulalayo isiphambeko wezindlela turning imikhumbi labo Beaufighters, azishiye engavikelekile ukweqa esigamekweni sokuqhunyiswa kwe ukuhlaselwa iU.S. medium ekuhlaseleni. I Beaufighters olwehlela umonakalo esiphezulu on shumbi 'anti-aircraft izibhamu, amabhuloho kanye nabasebenza ngesikhathi strafing iphelela ne zabo ezine 20 mm ekhaleni kwaqhuma anamathandathu .303 wing-aboshelwe (7.7 mm) izibhamu. uyisa Eight futhi abachithi abane Umbe ukufelwa izindiza amahlanu, kuhlanganise omunye Beaufighter.

Ngemva Kwempi

Kusukela 1944 sekwephuzile, RAF Beaufighter amayunithi babehilelekile ngesiGreki Civil War, ekugcineni siphume ngo 1946.
Le Beaufighter wasetshenziswa futhi amabutho emoyeni yasePortugal, Turkey kanye Dominican Republic. It yayisetshenziswa kafushane ngu Israeli Air Force. Source Wikipedia


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