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Bristol Beaufighter FSX

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The Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter, mgbe kwuru na dị nnọọ ka beau, bụ British ogologo nso arọ fighter mgbanwe nke Bristol Aeroplane Company mbụ Beaufort torpedo otu bombu imewe. The aha Beaufighter bụ a portmanteau nke "Beaufort" na "fighter".

N'adịghị ka ndị Beaufort, ndị Beaufighter nwere ogologo ọrụ ma jee ozi na fọrọ nke nta niile ekiri fim agha n'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ, mbụ dị ka a n'abalị fighter, mgbe ahụ, dị ka a fighter otu bombu na-emecha dochie Beaufort dị ka a torpedo otu bombu. A variant e wuru na Australia site Ngalaba nke Aircraft Production (DAP) na a maara Australia dị ka DAP Beaufighter.

Kere na mmepe

Echiche nke a fighter mmepe nke Beaufort e atụ aro na Air Ministry site Bristol. The aro na coincided na ndị na-egbu oge na mmepe na mmepụta nke Westland Whirlwind egbe ala-burugodị ejima-engine fighter. Ebe ọ bụ na "Beaufort egbe ala Agha" ahụ a tọghatara ndị otu dị na imewe, mmepe na mmepụta nwere ike na-atụ anya ka nnọọ ngwa ngwa karịa na a kpam kpam ọhụrụ imewe. N'ihi ya, Air Ministry emepụta nkọwapụta F.11 / 37 dere gburugburu Bristol ya tụụrụ maka "obere" ugbo elu rue mgbe kwesịrị ekwesị iwebata the Whirlwind. Bristol amalite ịrụ a prototype site na-ewere a akụkụ-wuru Beaufort si mmepụta akara. The prototype mbụ ama on 17 July 1939, a obere ihe karịa ọnwa asatọ ka imewe malitere, ikekwe n'ihi na ojiji nke ukwuu nke Beaufort, atụmatụ na akụkụ. A mmepụta nkwekọrịta maka 300 ígwè ọrụ e siworo enịm izu abụọ tupu prototype F.17 / 39 ọbụna ama.

Ke ofụri ofụri, iche n'etiti Beaufort na Beaufighter ndị obere. The nku, akara na-ebupụta, retractable ọdịda gia na AFT ngalaba nke fuselage ndị yiri ndị nke Beaufort, mgbe nku center bụ mpaghara yiri iche n'ebe ụfọdụ oyiyi akwa. The bọmbụ n'ọnụ mmiri e omitted, na anọ atụ-na-agba 20 mm Hispano Mk III cannons e ndokwasa ke ala fuselage ebe. Ndị a n'oge mbụ nri si 60-gburugburu rụọ, a na Rada maka ọrụ ịgbanwe mgbọ rụọ iji aka - na-agwụ ike na ịdị Ndị ọrụ, karịsịa n'abalị na mgbe na-achụ a otu bombu. N'ihi ya, ha na-adịghị anya dochie anya a belt-nri usoro. The cannons e gbakwunyere site isii .303 na (7.7 mm) browning machineguns na nku (anọ staabod, abụọ n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri). The ebe maka n'azụ onye agha na bọmbụ-aimer e wepụrụ, na-ahapụ nanị pilot na a fighter-ụdị kokpiiti. The ụgbọ mmiri / Rada maka ọrụ nọdụ n'azụ n'okpuru a obere perspex afụ ebe Beaufort si dorsal turret ama.

The Bristol Taurus engines nke Beaufort abụghị ike zuru ezu maka a fighter na e dochie anya ndị ọzọ dị ike Bristol Hercules. The amara ike ọkọnọ nsogbu na vibration; na ikpeazụ na imewe ha na-ndokwasa on aba, ọzọ mgbanwe struts, nke rapaara si n'ihu nku. Nke a kpaliri ndị center nke ike ndọda (cog)-atụ, a ihe ọjọọ n'ihi na ụgbọelu imewe. Ọ kpaliri azụ site shortening imi, dị ka nweghị ohere dị mkpa maka a bombu aimer na a fighter. Nke a na-etinye ọtụtụ ndị fuselage n'azụ nku, na ya kpaliri ndị cog azụ ebe ọ kwesịrị. Na engine cowlings na propellers now n'ihu na-atụ karịa n'ọnụ nke imi, na Beaufighter nwere a Characteristically stubby anya.

Production nke Beaufort na Australia, na nweworo na ojiji nke British mere Beaufighters site Royal Australian Air Force, mere ka Beaufighters na-ewu site Australian Department of Aircraft Production (DAP) si 1944 n'ihu. The DAP si variant bụ onye agha / torpedo otu bombu maara dị ka Mark 21: imewe mgbanwe gụnyere Hercules VII ma ọ bụ XVIII engines na ụfọdụ obere mgbanwe na mgwo agha.

Site na mgbe British mmepụta ahịrị mechie na September 1945, 5,564 Beaufighters e wuru na England, site Bristol na kwa site Fairey Aviation Company, (498) Ministry of Aircraft Production (3336) na Rootes (260).

Mgbe Australian mmepụta kwụsịrị na 1946, 365 Mk.21s e wuru.

arụmọrụ ọrụ

Bristol Beaufighter Mk 1 na Nke 252 skwodron, North Africa

Site fighter ụkpụrụ, na Beaufighter Mk.I bụ kama arọ na ngwa ngwa. Ọ nwere ihe niile na-elu arọ nke 16,000 lb (7,000 n'arọ) na a ọsọ kacha naanị 335 mph (540 km / h) na 16,800 ft (5,000 m). Otú o sina nke a bụ ihe nile di e nwere mgbe ahụ, dị ka n'ihu mmepụta nke na uzọ ọzọ magburu onwe Westland Whirlwind e siworo kwụsịrị ruru ka nsogbu na mmepụta nke ya apụta-Royce Peregrine engines.

The Beaufighter hụrụ onwe ya na-abịa kwụsịrị mmepụta akara na ọ fọrọ nke nta kpọmkwem otu oge dị ka nke mbụ British Airborne Intercept (Ai) Rada tent. Na ihe anọ ahụ 20 mm egbe ala ndokwasa ke ala fuselage, imi nwere ike ịnabata Rada antennas, na izugbe roominess nke fuselage nyeere Ai ngwá na-ruo eruo mfe. Ọbụna kwajuru na-20,000 lb (9,100 n'arọ) ụgbọelu bụ ngwa ngwa iji jide German atụ bọmbụ. Site n'oge 1941, ọ bụ irè counter ka Luftwaffe abalị raids. The dị iche iche Ụdị ochie na Beaufighter n'oge na-adịghị bidoro ọrụ esenidụt, ebe ya ruggedness na ntụkwasị obi n'oge na-adịghị mere na ugbo elu na-ewu ewu na crews.

A n'abalị-fighter Mk VIF e nyere ka squadrons na March 1942, onwem na Ai Mark nke Asatọ Rada. Dị ka ngwa ngwa de Havilland anwụnta we n'abalị fighter ọrụ n'etiti afọ ka mbubreyo 1942, na arọ Beaufighters mere bara uru onyinye na ndị ọzọ ebe ndị dị otú ahụ dị ka mgbochi mbupu, n'ala agha na ogologo nso interdiction ọ bụla isi ihe nkiri nke arụmọrụ.

Ke Mediterranean, ndị USAAF si 414th, 415th, 416th na 417th Night Agha Squadrons natara 100 Beaufighters n'oge okpomọkụ nke 1943, ọbọ mbụ ha mmeri na July 1943. Site na okpomọkụ na squadrons ekenịmde ma n'ehihie convoy iduga ozi na ala-agha arụmọrụ, kama ọ bụ ama iji chebe onwe interception ọzọ n'abalị. Ọ bụ ezie na Northrop P-61 Black di ya nwụrụ fighter malitere na-abata na December 1944, USAAF Beaufighters wee na-efegharị abalị arụmọrụ ke Italy na France ruo mgbe mbubreyo n'agha.

Site n'oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ nke 1943, anwụnta n'asụsụ ezu nọmba iji dochie Beaufighter dị ka isi abalị fighter nke RAF. Site na njedebe nke agha ụfọdụ 70 ụgbọelu na-eje ozi na RAF nkeji ghọrọ aces mgbe ịnọ Beaufighters.

The Beaufighter na-depụtara na odide ntụkwasị nke akwụkwọ KG 200 dị ka ọ na e bubatara site German nzuzo arụmọrụ unit KG 200, nke na-anwale, inyocha na mgbe ụfọdụ nzuzo ejikwara weghaara iro ugbo elu n'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ. ala gbara osimiri okirikiri Command

1941 hụrụ mmepe nke Beaufighter Mk.IC ogologo nso arọ fighter. A ọhụrụ variant banyere ọrụ na May 1941 na a detachment si Ee e 252 skwodron arụ ọrụ site Malta. The ụgbọelu gosipụtara nnọọ irè nke Mediterranean megide mbupu, ugbo elu na ala zaa na Ala gbara osimiri okirikiri Command ghọrọ ndị isi ọrụ nke Beaufighter, dochie ugbu a gharazie ịba uru Beaufort na Blenheim.

Ala gbara osimiri okirikiri Command malitere nnyefe nke elu-e gosiri na Mk.VIC n'etiti 1942. Site na njedebe nke 1942 Mk VICs a nọ na-onwem na torpedo-ebu gia, nyeere ha aka ịrụ British 18 na (457 mm) ma ọ bụ na US 22.5 na (572 mm) torpedo externally. The mbụ ihe ịga nke ọma torpedo ọgụ site Beaufighters n'April 1943, na Nke 254 skwodron emikpu abụọ ahịa ụgbọ mmiri ndị dị anya Norway.

The Hercules Mk na Asaa, na-emepe emepe 1,735 HP (1,294 kW) na 500 ft (150 m), e arụnyere na Mk Vic airframe-emepụta na-TF Mk.X (Torpedo Agha), bụ nke a maara dị ka "Torbeau." The Mk X ghọrọ isi mmepụta akara nke Beaufighter. The iku variant nke "Torbeau" e wepụtara na Mk.XIC. Beaufighter TF XS ga-eme ka nkenke ọgụ na mbupu na-efegharị efegharị-top elu na torpedoes ma ọ bụ "60lb" RP-3 Tammy. Ụdị ochie na Mk XS rụrụ metric-wavelength ASV (ikuku na-elu arịa) Rada na "herringbone" antennae rụrụ na imi na elu nku, ma nke a dochie ke mbubreyo 1943 site centimetric Ai Mark nke Asatọ Rada chọpụtara na a "timbul-imi" radome, kwe nile-weather na abalị ọgụ.

The North Coates Ebu nku nke Ala gbara osimiri okirikiri Command, dabere na RAF North Coates na Lincolnshire n'ụsọ oké osimiri, mepụtara si eme nke jikọtara nnukwu formations nke Beaufighters eji egbe ala na Tammy na-ebelata flak mgbe Torbeaus wakpoo na ala ozo na torpedoes. Ndị a nọgidere na-etinye n'etiti 1943, na a 10 ọnwa oge, 29,762 tọn (27,000 tonnes) nke mbupu na-abami. Nọgidere na-ozokwa na-emegharị mgbe mbupu kpaliri site n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri n'abalị. North Coates Ebu nku ejikwara dị ka ndị kasị ibu mgbochi mbupu ike nke Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ, na gua n'elu 150,000 tọn (136,100 tonnes) nke mbupu na 117 arịa ndị bụ maka a ọnwụ nke 120 Beaufighters na 241 aircrew gburu ma ọ bụ na-efu. Nke a bụ ọkara nke ngụkọta tonnage sunk site nile iku nku n'etiti 1942-45. Pacific agha The Beaufighter rutere squadrons na Asia na Pacific n'etiti-1942. Ọ na-e kwuru na - ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ na mbụ a mpempe RAF whimsy ngwa ngwa, ewe welie site a British nta akụkọ - na Japanese agha zoro aka Beaufighter dị ka "-agba izu ọnwụ", e weere n'ihi awakpo ugbo elu mgbe na-adịghị nụrụ (ma ọ bụ hụrụ) ruo mgbe oke mbubreyo. The Beaufighter si Hercules engines na-eji aka uwe valves nke kọrọ ọgba valvụ gia nkịtị ka poppet valvụ engines. Nke a bụ kasị o di na a belatara mkpọtụ larịị na n'ihu nke engine.

South ọwụwa anyanwụ Asia

Na South-East Asia Theatre, ndị Beaufighter Mk VIF ejikwara si India on abalị ọzọ megide Japanese ụzọ nkwurịta okwu na Burma na Thailand. The elu-ọsọ, ala-larịị ọgụ ndị ukwuu irè, n'agbanyeghị na mgbe arụrụala ọnọdụ ihu igwe, na wuru mgbidi ahụ na mmezi facilities.South ọwụwa anyanwụ Asia

South ọdịda anyanwụ Pacific

Tupu DAP Beaufighters bịarute na Royal Australian Air Force nkeji na South West osimiri Pacific, nke Bristol Beaufighter Mk IC n'ọrụ na mgbochi mbupu ọzọ.
The kasị ama ndị a bụ Agha nke Bismarck Sea-ha nke ha n'otu mgbe ejikwara na USAAF A-20 Bostons na B-25 Mitchells. Ee e 30 skwodron RAAF Beaufighters ama na na osisi ọkọlọtọ elu inye arọ suppressive ọkụ n'ihi na ebili mmiri nke na-awakpo atụ bọmbụ. The Japanese convoy, n'okpuru echiche na ha nọ n'okpuru torpedo agha, me ka egbu egbu kenkwucha njehie nke mbịne ha n'ụgbọ mmiri kwupụta Beaufighters, na-ahapụ ha gụrụ ikwu bọmbụ mwakpo nke ndị US ase atụ bọmbụ. The Beaufighters akpatara onwe kacha mmebi on n'ụgbọ mmiri emegide ugbo elu egbe, àkwà mmiri na crews n'oge strafing-agbaba na ha anọ 20 mm imi cannons na isii nku-ndokwasa .303 na (7.7 mm) igwe egbe. Asatọ transports na anọ ebukọrọ e mikpuru n'ihi ọnwụ nke ise ugbo elu, gụnyere otu Beaufighter.

Mgbe agha

Si mbubreyo 1944, RAF Beaufighter nkeji, nọ na-Grik Civil War, akpatre wezụgara na 1946.
The Beaufighter e jikwa ihe ikuku agha nke Portugal, Turkey na Dominican Republic. Ya mee nkenke site na Israel Air Force. isi iyi Wikipedia

AKWUKWU AKUKO


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