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Bristol Beaufighter FSX

MACLUUMAAD FADLAN

La soco, kaliya FSX-SP2 ama Dardar gelinta

Waa farshaxan! Sawir ahaan ma jirto wax cayiman oo qashin-kiciyadeeduna waa mid qurux badan oo faahfaahsan. Waxay ku farxi doontaa taageerayaasha diyaaradaha dagaal ee dagaalka adduunka labaad.
Waxaa ka mid ah xayiraadda 10, iyo dhawaaqyada dhabta ah ee khaaska ah ee noocan ah kaas oo hagaajinaya jilicinta.

Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter, oo inta badan loo yaqaan 'Beau', ayaa ahaa isbeddel wayn oo isdaba-joog ah oo Ingiriis ah oo ku yimid shirkadda Bristol Airplane ee hore ee Beaufort torpedo bomber design. Beaufighter magaca Beaufighter waa dekad ah "Beaufort" iyo "dagaal".

Beaufort oo ka duwan Beaufighter, wuxuu u shaqeynayay dhamaanba tiyaatarka dagaalka ee Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka, markii ugu horreysay ee uu ahaa dagaalkii habeenkii, ka dibna wuxuu ahaa bomber dagaaliye ah, ugu dambeynna wuxuu bedelay Beaufort sidii bambo gacmeed. Kala duwanaansho waxaa lagu dhisay Australia by Wasaarada Diyaarinta Ciyaaraha (DAP) waxaana lagu yaqaanay Australia sida DAP Beaufighter.

Design iyo horumarinta

Fikradda ah horumarinta dagaal ee Beaufort ayaa lagu soo jeediyay Wasaaradda Cirka ee Bristol. Taladaasi waxay ku dhacday dib u dhac ku yimid horumarka iyo wax soo saarka Westland Whirlwind dagaal hubaysan oo lab ah. Tan iyo markii loo yaqaan "Beaufort Cannon Fighter" waxay ahayd beddelid naqshad hore, horumar iyo wax soo saarka ayaa laga filan karaa in ka badan si ka badan naqshad dhammaystiran oo cusub. Sida ku cad, Wasaaradda Cimilada waxay soo saartey qeexitaanka F.11 / 37 oo ku saabsan hareeraha Bristol ee loogu talagalay diyaarad "ku meel-gaadh ah" oo ku xiran habka loo yaqaan "Whirlwind". Bristol waxay bilawday dhismaha prototype iyadoo qaadatay Beaufort qayb ka mid ah oo ka soo baxay khadka wax soo saarka. Nidaamka hore wuxuu u duulay 17 July 1939, waxoogaa in ka badan siddeed bilood ka dib markii naqshadeynta billaabatay, laga yaabo inay sabab u tahay isticmaalka badanaa naqshadeynta iyo qaybaha Beaufort. Qandaraaska wax soo saarka ee mashiinada 300 horey ayaa loo dhigey laba toddobaad ka hor inta aan la duubin F.17 / 39 xitaa duulay.

Guud ahaan, farqiga u dhexeeya Beaufort iyo Beaufighter waxay ahaayeen kuwo yar. Baalalka, balaastikada, kontoroolka dhulka dib loo soo celiyo iyo qaybta gogol-xajka ah waxay u dhigantaa kuwa Beaufort, halka qaybta dhexe ee garabku ay u egtahay mid la mid ah fiilooyinka qaarkood. Qoryaha bambada ayaa la tuuray, iyo afartii weerar ee xNUMX mm Hispano Mk III gumaysiga ayaa lagu rakibay aagga hoose ee fuushanka. Kuwani waxaa markii hore laga quudin jiray XMUMX-wareeg ah, waxay u baahan tahay hawlgalaha radar si ay u baddelaan duufaanada rasmiga ah ee gacanta - shaqo adag oo aan laga fogeyn, khaasatan habeenkii iyo iyadoo la raadinayo bam-gacmeed. Natiijo ahaan, waxaa si dhakhso ah loogu beddelay habka suunka lagu xoqdo. Cannabada waxaa lagu daray lix .20 ee (60 mm) Qalabka wax lagu rido ee baalasha (boodhka, laba dekedda). Meelaha loogu talagalay gawaarida gawaarida iyo bambo-gacmeedka ayaa la saarey, iyada oo kaliya ka tagay duuliyihii nooca dagaalka ee nooca dagaalka. Hawlwadeenada / radar-da ayaa u fadhiistay dhinaca dambe ee hoostiisa oo yaryar oo ku yaalla Beaufort oo tours ah.

Baabuurta Bristol Taurus ee Beaufort ma ahan kuwo awood ku filan oo loogu talagalay dagaalyahan waxaana lagu badalay Bristol Hercules. Awoodda dheeraadka ah waxay soo bandhigtay dhibaatooyin la xiriira qalalaasaha; ee naqshadihii ugu dambeeyay waxay ku dul dhajiyeen dheer, cidhiidhin badan, oo ka soo baxay baalasha hore. Tani waxay u dhaqaaqday xarunta dhexe ee culeyska (CoG), oo ah wax xun oo loogu talagalay naqshad sameynta. Waxaa dib loo soo celiyay by gaabinta sanka, ma jirin meel loogu baahan yahay goolka bamka ee dagaal. Tani waxay inteeda badan ku dhejisey gogol-xaadhka ka dambeysa garabka, waxayna ku celisay CoG dhabarka halka ay tahay. Iyada oo mishiinka mishiinka iyo hindhistaha hadda ka sii hormarinaya calaamadda sanka, Beaufighter wuxuu u muuqday mid muuqaal ah.

Wax soosaarka Beaufort ee Australia, iyo isticmaalka aadka u guuleystay ee Beaufighters ee British-ka ah ee Awoodda Austariska ee Australia, waxay horseeday Beaufighters oo ay dhistay Wasaarada Awooda Diyaarada (DAP) oo ka timid 1944. DAP kala duwanaanshaheedu wuxuu ahaa weerar / bambada shabakada oo loo yaqaano Mark 21: isbeddelka naqshadeynta waxaa ka mid ahaa Hercules VII ama XVIII makiinadaha iyo waxoogaa isbeddel yar oo ka jira hubka.

Waqtigaas oo ah khadadka soo saarista ingiriiska ee la xidhay bishii Sebtembar 1945, 5,564 Beaufighters ayaa laga dhisay England, Bristol iyo sidoo kale shirkadda Fairey Aviation, (498) Wasaaradda Duulista Hawada (3336) iyo Rootes (260).

Marka waxsoosaarka Australia uu joogsaday 1946, 365 Mk.21s ayaa la dhisay.

Adeegga hawlgalka

Bristol Beaufighter Mk 1 ee No. No. 252 Squadron, Waqooyiga Afrika

Marka la eego heerarka dagaalka, Beaufighter Mk.I wuxuu ahaa mid culus oo gaabis ah. Waxay leedahay miisaan dhan oo ah 16,000 lb (7,000 kg) iyo xawaaraha ugu sareeya ee 335 mph (540 km / h) oo ah 16,800 ft (5,000 m). Si kastaba ha ahaatee tani waxay ahayd wax walba oo la heli karo xilligaas, iyada oo wax soo saarka dheer ee Westland Whirlwind horay loo joojiyay sababtoo ah dhibaatooyin la xiriira soo saarista mashiinnada Rolls-Royce Peregrine.

Beaufighter wuxuu isku dayey in uu ka soo baxo khadka wax soo saarka isla markiiba isla wakhtigaas oo ah kii ugu horreeyay ee British Airborne Intercept (AI) radar. Iyada oo afarta xnUMX mm xashiishad lagu rakibay hoyga hoose, sanku wuxuu dabooli karaa radar antennas, iyo qolka guud ee wareegga wuxuu awood u siiyey qalabka AI si fudud loogu rakibo. Xitaa waxaa lagu soo wareejiyay 20 lb (20,000 kg) diyaaradda ayaa si dhakhsa ah ugu filneyd in ay soo qabato bam gacmeedyada Jarmalka. Horaantii 9,100, waxa ay ahayd wax ku ool ah in weerarrada habeenkii Luftwaffe. Qaababka kala duwan ee Beaufighter ayaa dhowaan bilaabay adeegga dibedda, halkaas oo ay ku adkaysatay iyo kalsoonidii ugu dambaysay samaysay diyaarad caan ah oo lala shaqeeyay shaqaalaha.

Habeenkii dagaalyahanada Mk VIF waxaa la siiyay ciidamadii bishii Maarso 1942, oo leh qalab AI Mark VIII radar. Iyadoo si dhaqso ah loo hirgelinayay Havilland Mosquito doorka habeenkii ee dhexdhexaadinta 1942, kuwa culus ee Beaufighters waxay sameysteen faa'idooyin qiimo leh meelaha kale sida weerarrada maraakiibta, weerarrada dhulka iyo muddada dheer ee hawlgal kasta oo waaweyn.

Bariga Mediterranean, XAFXADAHA 414th, 415th, 416th iyo 417th Night Fighter Squadrons waxay ka heleen 100 Beaufighters xagaaga ee 1943, iyagoo guushoodii ugu horeysay ee July 1943 ku guuleystay. Xilliga xagaaga ayaa ciidamadu waxay qabteen howlgalada dayuuradaha dayac-tirka ah iyo hawlgallada goobta weerarka, laakiin ugu horreyntii waxay duulimaadyo isdaba-joog ah ku duulaan habeenkii. Inkastoo Northrop P-61 Carmal Black Widow ay bilaabeen inay yimaadaan Diisembar 1944, USAAF Beaufighters ayaa sii waday inay duulimaaddo habeenkii hawlaha habeenkii ah ee Talyaaniga iyo Faransiiska ilaa dabayaaqadii dagaalka.

Xilligii dayrta ee 1943, Kaneecada waxaa loo heli jiray lambaro ku filan oo lagu badalayo Beaufighter habeenkii hore ee dagaalka RAF. Dhamaadkii dagaalkii qaar ka mid ah duuliyayaasha 70 oo u adeegaya RAF waa ay noqdeen kuwo dufan ah marka la duulayo Beaufighters.

Beaufighter wuxuu ku qoran yahay lifaaqa qoraaga KG 200 markii uu ka soo degay qaybta hawlgallada qarsoodiga Jarmalka ee KG 200, oo tijaabiyey, qiimeynayey, iyo mararka qaarkood qarsoodi loo adeegsaday diyaaradaha dagaalka ee la qabtay intii lagu jiray dagaalkii labaad ee aduunka. Taliska xeebaha

1941 waxay aragtay horumarinta Beaufighter Mk.IC dagaalyahan culus oo dheer. Kala duwanaantan cusub ayaa adeegtay May 1941 oo ay kala soocday 252 Squadron oo ka shaqeyneysa Malta. Duulimaadyadu waxay si fiican u cadeeyeen badda Mediterranean ee ka soo horjeeda maraakiibta, duulimaadka iyo bartilmaameedyada dhulka ee xeebaha Commanders ayaa noqday adeegsiga ugu weyn ee Beaufighter, oo beddelay Beaufort iyo Blenheim hadda.

Taliska Xeebta wuxuu bilaabay in uu keeno Mk.VIC-ga ugu sarreeya ee bartamaha 1942. Dhamaadkii 1942 MK VICs waxaa lagu qalabeeyey qalab koronto ku xiran, iyaga oo awood u siinaya in ay qaadaan 18 Ingiriisi ah (457 mm) ama US 22.5 (572 mm) torpedo dibadda. Weeraradii ugu horreeyay ee laga soo badbaadiyay Beerfighters waxay yimaadeen bishii April 1943, iyada oo ay ku jiraan No. 254 Squadron oo u dhoofay laba maraakiib ganacsi oo ka soo jeeda Norway.

Hercules Mk XVII, kobcinta 1,735 hp (1,294 kW) ee 500 ft (150 m), ayaa lagu rakibay mashiinka Mk VIC si loo soo saaro TF Mk.X (Torpedo Fighter), oo loo yaqaan "Torbeau." Mk X waxay noqotay badi wax soo saarka Beaufighter. Nooca shaqo-joojinta ee "Torbeau" ayaa loo qoondeeyey Mk.XIC. Beaufighter TF Xs ayaa weeraro qatar ah ku sameyn doonta maraakiibta maraakiibta sare ee dhoobada leh xeedhada ama "60lb" RPG-3. Qaababka Hore ee Mk Xs waxay qaadeen mitirka-mawjada ASV (weel hawo-dusha sare ah) radar leh "antigen" oo lagu qaaday sanka iyo baaldiga dambe, laakiin tani waxa lagu bedelay 1943 dhamaadkii kowaad ee Radimilis AI Mark VIII radar "dhuumo-sanka", oo awood u siinaya weerarada cimilada oo dhan iyo habeenkii.

Xuduudaha North Coates Strike Command Command, oo ku salaysan RAF North Coates oo ku taala xeebta Lincolnshire, ayaa xeeladaheeda horumariyay, kuwaas oo isku dhafan qaabab ballaadhan oo Beaufighters ah oo isticmaalaya cannon iyo gantaal si ay u xakameeyaan dabacsan halka Torbeaus uu ku soo weeraray heer hoose oo leh xargaha. Xeeladahan ayaa lagu dhexdhexaadiyay bartamihii 1943, iyo xilligii 10-bishii, 29,762 tons (27,000 tonnes) oo maraakiib ah ayaa la qafaashay. Tacikada ayaa lagu sii adkeeyay markii maraakiibta ay ka soo baxeen dekedda habeenkii. Waqooyiga Coates Strike Wing wuxuu u shaqeynayey ciidanka ugu weyn ee la dagaalanka argagixisada labaad ee adduunka, waxaana lagu xisaabiyey 150,000 tufaax (136,100 tan) maraakiibta iyo maraakiibta 117 ee lumitaanka 120 Beaufighters iyo 241 duqeeyey ama la waayay. Tani waxay ahayd badhkii wadarta tareenka oo dhan baalasha iskuxirka u dhexeeya 1942-45. Dagaal dagaal Beaufighter wuxuu soo gaaray kooxo ku yaalla Aasiya iyo Pacific oo ku yaalla bartamaha 1942. Waxaa inta badan la yiri - inkasta oo asal ahaan ay ahayd asal ahaan RAF ah oo si dhakhso ah u qaadday wariye British ah - askarta Jabaanku u soo gudbiyeen Beaufighter "geerida foosha", ayaa la rumaysan yahay in duullimaadyada badanaa aan la maqlin (ama la arko) ilaa iyo goor dambe. Beaufighter's Hercules makiinada ayaa isticmaalay furayaasha wax lagu xiro oo aan lahayn qalab gawaarida guluubka ah oo loo yaqaan 'mashiinka mashiinka' valve. Tani waxay u muuqataa mid ka muuqata heerka hoos u dhaca maqalka hore ee mishiinka.

Koonfur bari Asia

Tiyaatarka Tartanka Koonfur-Bari ee Asia, Beaufighter Mk VIF ayaa ka hawlgalay Hindiya habeenimadii talaadada oo ka dhan ah xarumaha Japan ee isgaarsiinta ee Burma iyo Thailand. Weerarrada xawaaraha sare, heerka hooseeya waxay ahaayeen kuwo aad u firfircoon, inkastoo marar badan xaaladaha cimilada, iyo dayactirka iyo dayactirka guryaha.

Koonfur galbeed Pacific

Ka hor intaan la dhoofin DAP waxay soo gaadheen qaybo ka mid ah Qaybta Cirka ee Australia ee Koonfurta Galbeedka Pacific, Bristol Beaufighter Mk IC ayaa lagu shaqeeyaa xafiisyada maraakiibta maraakiibta.
Tan ugu caansan waxay ahayd Battle of Bismarck Bari ee ay wada shaqeeyaan USAAF A-20 Bostons iyo B-25 Mitchells. Maya. 30 Squadron RAAF Beaufighters ayaa ku duulay dhererka mastarada si ay u bixiyaan dabka culus ee hirarka weerarrada bambooyinka ah. Kolonyadii Japan, oo ay hoos u dhigeen aragtida ah in ay ku jireen weerarkii torpedo, waxay sameeyeen qaladaad xeeladaysan oo ah in maraakiibtooda ay u soo jiidaan Beaufighters, iyaga oo ka tagay iyaga oo u soo bandhigay weeraro qaraxyo ah oo lala beegsado weerarrada dhexdhexaadinta Maraykanka. Beaufighters waxay ku dhaawacmeen ugu badnaan maraakiibta diyaaradaha dagaalka, gawaarida iyo shaqaalaha maraakiibta marka ay socdaan wiiggan waxay la socdaan afarta xaynood ee 20 mm iyo lix kaniisadood .303 (hubka 7.7) Siddeed gaadiid iyo afar tuhmaneyaal ayaa lagu qulqulay luminta shan diyaaradood, oo ay ku jiraan hal Beaufighter.

Postwar

Laga soo bilaabo dabayaaqadii 1944, cutubyada RAF Beaufighter waxay ku hawlanayeen Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Giriigga, ugu dambeyntii ka soo baxay 1946.
Beaufighter waxaa sidoo kale loo adeegsaday ciidamada cirka ee Portugal, Turkey iyo Dominican Republic. Waxaa si kooban loo adeegsaday Ciidanka Cirka ee Israel. Wabiga Wikipedia

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